ICOMOS Training Course “Heritage Communities and Human Rights”, 2.- 5.09.2020, Estonia

ICOMOS „Our Common Dignity“ Working Group is honored to invite heritage experts, community leaders, and graduate students from Europe and around the world to training course „Heritage Communities and Human Rights“ which will be held 2.-5.09.2020 in Estonia and internet.

The training course „Heritage Communities and Human Rights“ focuses on community-based heritage protection and the theory and application of human rights-based approaches in the heritage field. The course combines theoretical approaches with learning from practice involving field visits in Estonia as well as an exchange among participants. The course lecturers will provide an introduction to international human rights law that specifically relates to culture, heritage, and communities. In addition to providing basic knowledge about human rights and the UN, UNESCO and IUCN systems and practices, this course will discuss focus cases of heritage management and rights in protected heritage areas in different countries. 

The training course on rights-based approaches is led by Dr. Peter Bille Larsen, the University of Geneva, and Dr. Stener Ekern, Oslo University. Thematic modules will be introduced and moderated by Bente Mathisen, Riin Alatalu, and Ave Paulus (ICOMOS “Our Common Dignity” working group). ICCROM is represented by Rohit Jigyasu and Eugene Jo, IUCN by Tim Badman.

The global pandemic is forcing us to digitalize the course and we have to plan accordingly. For the sake of effective training, we will adjust format and agendas so that all events will be accessible regardless of the presence in Estonia and time zones of the participants. The course will be divided into 5-hour daily joint zoom sessions, starting at 12 noon Paris time. In addition, there will be individual homework in the form of case material, which we will share and read before and after sessions. The joint sessions will include lectures, individual or group presentations, and, most of all, group and plenary discussions. We expect you to participate actively, in-person in Estonia or with video and audio, so that we can benefit from our collective presence and creativity. Short morning fieldwork visits will be recorded in video and made available on the web during the sessions.

Training Course time frame: 2.09-5.09

EVERY DAY in ESTONIA and in ZOOM

NB!! Paris Time

9.00-12.00 fieldwork (video summary in the web)

12.00-14.00 Lectures, discussion

15.00-17/18.00 Case studies, discussion

Detailed Schedule of the Course:

Wednesday, 2.09 Human rights and heritage. Memory sites

Moderators of the day – Riin Alatalu, Stener Ekern

10-12 Welcome Brunch

12.00-14.00 Introductory Session

Estonian Academy of Arts A-301/ 

12-12.30 Welcome words by Bente Mathisen. Short introduction of the participants

12.30-14.00 Introductory Lecture. Human Rights, Culture and Community Formation, Heritage. An Introduction to Human Rights-based Thinking. – Stener Ekern (Norway)

15.00-18.00 Introduction and Case studies of ‘memory sites’ or ‘historical monuments’. Estonian Academy of Arts A-301/ 

15-16.30 Introductory Lecture. Human rights and heritage, lessons from rights-based approaches. Peter Bille Larsen.

16.30-16.45 Utøya, Norway. – Bente Mathiesen (Norway)

16.45-17.00 Te Pōrere, New Zealand. – Paulette Wallace (Germany).

17.00-18.00 Discussion moderated by Stener Ekern

Thursday, 3.09 Urban heritage and tourism. The balance between tourism expectations and community rights

Moderators of the day – Triin Talk, Riin Alatalu

10-12 Field visit – walk with community representatives in Tallinn Old Town. Start at Kalev Spa

12.00-14.00 Urban Heritage and Tourism 

12.00 Lecture by Rohit Jigyasu

12.30 Lecture by Claudio Milano

13.00 Case study: Overtourism in Tallinn Old Town. – Triin Talk (Estonia)

13.20 Case study: Social Interaction in Historic Quarter of Rashid. – Mohamed Amer (Egypt)

13.40 Case study: Mean(ing)s of heritage: processes of marginalization of urban zones and the aspects of (experimental) preservation. – Sanja Zadro (Bosnia-Herzegovina)

14.00 Break

15.00-18.00 Urban Heritage and Tourism 

Estonian Academy of Arts A-301/ 

15.00 Case study: Kuldiga Old Town in the primeval valley of the river Venta. – Jana Jakobsone (Latvia)

15.20 Case study: Pampulha-Belo Horizonte. – Laura Lage (Brazil)

15.40 Case study: Urban Conservation areas in Estonia. – Kaarel Truu (Estonia)

16.00 Discussion

Friday, 4.09 Cultural landscapes, protected areas and heritage community rights

Moderators of the day – Ave Paulus, Peter Larsen

10-12 Field visit – learning from the communities of Lahemaa National Park: traditional fishing, Hara Harbour

12-14 Heritage Communities Rights and Cultural Landscapes

Cat Arthur Cinema Hall, Tapurla village, Lahemaa NP 

12.00-12.20 Peter Larsen, Some further thoughts on RBA and customary rights in a protected area context 

12.20-13.00 Tim Badman (UK). IUCN evaluations of World Heritage nominations, community and rights issues: recent developments and lessons learned 

13.00-14.00 Ave Paulus, Artur Talvik and Peter Larsen. Traditional livelihoods, values, and connected rights: Lahemaa NP fisheries research and international perspective 

15-18 International case-studies on the challenges of heritage communities, customary rights, and traditional cultural practices. 

Cat Arthur Cinema Hall, Tapurla village, Lahemaa NP 

15.00-15.20 Claudia Uribe Chinen (Peru). Participatory approaches to archaeological heritage management in the Qhapaq Ñan Andean Road System: Transformative processes or old conundrums in communities’ cultural heritage rights?

15.20 -15.40 Diana Cowie (Australia). An Initiative to Increase First Nations Cultural Heirtage in Statutory Heritage Listings.

15.40-16.00 Shubham Shrivastava (India).  Darjeeling Himalayan Railway (DHR): Exploring the impact ofintroduction ofbuffer zone on existing relationship between the local community and DHR

16.00-16.20 Hala Asslan (Syria). Syrian War: Women Rights &Cultural heritage in rural landscape

Neel Kamal Chapagain (Nepal). World Heritage Nomination from Community Perspective: A Case of Lomanthang, Nepal

16.20-16.40 Saara Mildeberg (Estonia). Landscape-Base Approach to Rural Stakeholders based on the Case Study of Soomaa National Park

16.40-17.00 Ancient and Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians

17.00-18.00 Discussion moderated by Peter Larsen

Saturday, 5.09 Institutional Panel on Human Rights and Heritage Communities

Moderators of the day – Bente Mathisen, Peter Larsen, Stener Ekern

12-14 Rethinking rights issues in different heritage contexts – intangible aspects. Representatives of IUCN, ICCROM, ICOMOS

Estonian Academy of Arts A-301/ 

12.-12.40 Lecture on People-Centered Approaches for Heritage Conservation and Management: Challenges and Opportunities by Eugene Jo (ICCROM) 

12.40-14.00 Rethinking rights issues in different heritage contexts – intangible aspects. Representatives of IUCN, ICCROM, ICOMOS.

In the dialogue:, Tim Badman, Rohit Jigyasu, Bente Mathisen, Peter Bille Larsen, Stener Ekern, Riin Alatalu, Ave Paulus et al

15-17 Synthesis and Conclusions

Participant Panel on rights issues in heritage: regional issues – local solutions?

Estonian Academy of Arts A-301/ 

5 participants from Africa, Asia, Latin America, Europe and the Middle East (tbc)

Conclusions, ways forward and next steps: Bente Mathisen, ICOMOS Working Group

Information for those arriving in Estonia:

Travel rules in COVID time: https://vm.ee/en/information-countries-and-self-isolation-requirements-passengers

Kalev Spa Hotel, reserved from 2.-5.09 https://www.kalevspa.ee/en/home/

Estonian Academy of Arts https://www.artun.ee/en/home/

Lahemaa National Park  https://kaitsealad.ee/en/protected-areas/lahemaa-national-park   

Old Town of Tallinn https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/822/ 

Tallinn Airport https://www.tallinn-airport.ee/en/transport/leaving-the-airport/

You are most welcome!

Ave Paulus, Riin Alatalu, Bente Mathisen

ICOMOS International Working Group “Our Common Dignity“

Additional information: estonia.icomos.org ave.paulus@artun.ee

Supporters: Nordic Council of Ministers, Estonian Academy of Arts, National Heritage Board of Estonia, Juminda Peninsula Society, Lahemaa NP Cooperation Council12-14 Lecture on People Centered Approaches for Heritage Conservation and Management: Challenges and Opportunities by Eugene Jo (ICCROM)

Stener Ekern is a professor in anthropology at the Norwegian Centre for Human Rights (NCHR) at the Faculty of Law at the University of Oslo. He has done fieldwork in Nicaragua (1984) and Guatemala (2000 and ongoing) with a thematic focus on indigenous peoples, human rights, and legal pluralism. Additionally, he has worked with human rights and world heritage and transitional justice. At the NCHR he is responsible for several master courses in human rights and has also elaborated a course in human rights and world heritage in cooperation with ICOMOS Norway. Before becoming a university researcher in 1997, he worked as a program officer in Norwegian development cooperation. 

Riin Alatalu is an associate professor of heritage conservation and restoration in Estonian Academy of Arts. She has a PhD in heritage conservation and restoration (“Heritage in Transitional Society from Nation’s Conscience in the Estonian SSR into the Harasser of the private Owner in the Republic of Estonia, 2012).  Alatalu has worked in National Heritage Board, Tallinn Culture and Heritage Department and Estonian Ministry of Culture on leading positions taking care of supervision and promotion of heritage and she has been in charge of important international programs. She is the member of the Board of ICOMOS International and president of ICOMOS Estonia, member of Rights-Based Approaches working group, CIVVIH and former vice-president of ICLAFI. She is the chairperson of Estonian Heritage Advisory Panel.

Ave Paulus has master’s degrees from the Estonian Academy of Arts (heritage conservation and restoration) and Tartu University (semiotics and theory of culture). Her doctoral thesis in Tartu University proposes a heritage protection model, based on heritage community values and rights, Tartu-Moscow Cultural Semiotics and Rights-Based Approaches. She is a member of the ICOMOS Estonia, ICOMOS International Scientific Committees on Cultural Landscapes and Legal and Administrative Issues, Rights-Based Approach and Climate Change working groups. She is a specialist for cultural heritage issues in the Environmental Board of Estonia, Council member of Virumaa Museums, spokesperson of the intangible heritage of the Folk Culture Centre, Board member of Lahemaa and Alutaguse National Park Cooperation Councils. She has coordinated cooperation between heritage communities, state and universities in several development projects concerning heritage management.

Rohit Jigyasu is a conservation architect and risk management professional from India, currently working at ICCROM as Project Manager on Urban Heritage, Climate Change and Disaster Risk Management. Rohit served as UNESCO Chair holder professor at the Institute for Disaster Mitigation of Urban Cultural Heritage at Ritsumeikan University, Kyoto, Japan, where he was instrumental in developing and teaching International Training Course on Disaster Risk Management of Cultural Heritage. He was the elected President of ICOMOS-India from 2014-2018 and president of ICOMOS International Scientific Committee on Risk Preparedness (ICORP) from 2010-2019. Rohit has been the Elected Member of the Executive Committee of ICOMOS since 2011 and is currently serving as its Vice President for the period 2017-2020.  Before joining ICCROM, Rohit has been working with several national and international organizations such as UNESCO, UNISDR, Getty Conservation Institute and World Bank for consultancy, research and training on Disaster Risk Management of Cultural Heritage.

Bente Mathisen is a Norwegian chartered architect MNAL who works as a cultural heritage manager and advisor at Statsbygg, Norway’s Public Construction Department, Culture and Ministry affairs. She has been director and deputy director for the Heritage Management Office of the World Heritage (WH) City of Bergen Norway, Director for the Management Office of Cidade Velha Republic of Cape Verde, and partner at the Architect group CUBUS, Bergen Norway. She is a board member of Foundation Bryggen, World Heritage site. She coordinated for 10 years the Eastern African City-to-City network between the WH cities of Bergen Lamu, Zanzibar and Ilha. She has been a Board member of ICOMOS Norway and is currently the focal point of the Our Common Dignity Initiative- Rights Based Approaches working group.

Tim Badman is the Director of IUCN’s newly established Nature-Culture Initiative, formerly Director of IUCN’s World Heritage Programme. He has been senior IUCN spokesperson on World Heritage, chair of the IUCN World Heritage Panel and Head of IUCN’s delegation at World Heritage Committee meetings since 2007. As of April 2019, Tim leads IUCN’s work in developing closer links between the Nature and Culture sectors, including through the World Heritage Leadership Programme jointly run by ICCROM and IUCN with support from Norway. Tim joined IUCN having worked as team leader of the Dorset and East Devon Coast World Heritage Site, UK. This role culminated in inscription of the site on the World Heritage List in 2001, and the subsequent development of the World Heritage programme on-site. He has been involved in many World Heritage site evaluation and monitoring issues globally. Tim also speaks for IUCN on the special challenges of conserving geological sites, including those sites that protect the most exceptional fossil remains of life on Earth


Claudia Hatsumi Uribe Chinen is a Peruvian archaeologist and scholar in heritage studies. Her professional work in the past 9 years has involved teaching assistance in Archaeology, archaeological research projects, consultancy on cultural resource management and research assistance in heritage conservation capacity-building programs. Claudia’s research interest s are generally concerned and critically engaged with uses of archaeological heritage in postcolonial contexts and approaches to ethics, sustainability and human rights in cultural heritage.

Claudio Milano is a social and cultural anthropologist with a background in economics and over 10 years of academic and industry experience. He is an international consultant in tourism development and urban planning, adjunct professor at the Department of Social and Cultural Anthropology at the Autonomous University of Barcelona and the Director of the Master’s program in Sustainable Tourism Destinations and Regional Tourism Planning at the Ostelea School Tourism Management, attached to the University of Lleida (Barcelona, Spain). Claudio is the Director of IDITUR Tourism Research Dissemination and Innovation Centre at Ostelea School of Tourism Management. Claudio holds a Ph.D. in Social and Cultural Anthropology and a Master in Social and Cultural Anthropology (Cultural Differences and Transnational Processes) both awarded by the Autonomous University of Barcelona (Spain).

Eugene Jo holds an MA in Cultural Heritage Studies, a BA in Korean History and is currently completing her PhD in World Heritage Studies at Konkuk University in Seoul. She joined ICCROM in 2017 as the Programme Coordinator for the joint IUCN/ICCROM World Heritage Leadership Programme. The World Heritage Programme aims to improve conservation and management practices for culture and nature through the work of the World Heritage Convention, as an integral component of the contribution of World Heritage Sites to sustainable development. The programme takes up a people-centred approach to conservation of nature and culture, with a focus on rights based approaches and addressing the issue of governance.

Hala Asslan has a Ph.D. from Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes (EPHE), Sorbonne, France, with honer. A consultant for the International Council of Monuments and Historic Sites (ICOMOS), UNESCO, and many other international organizations since 2010. She has varied professional and academic experience in the restoration and rehabilitation of historic buildings and sites in Syria, including World Heritage List sites such as Aleppo, Palmyra, Salah-Din Castle, Old Damascus, and Jerusalem. Serves as Co-President of Heritage Committee of the Central Syrian Architects & Engineers Syndicate. She Consultant with the Aga Khan Trust and the General Directorate of Antiquities and Museums in Syria (DGAM) for the restoration and rehabilitation of “Souk al-Saqatiyya” in the Old City of Aleppo, 2018.

Jana Jakobsone, Dr. arch., Director of the Construction Department of Kuldiga Municipality Council, the architect of the municipality (since 2005), Director of the Building Authority (since 2017), Chairperson of the Old Town and Environment Committee (since 2011), director of several urban environment development concepts and research. ICOMOS Latvia president (since 2013), CIVVIH expert member (since 2019). Practicing architect at the SIA Arho Office (from 2001 to 2005), certified practicing architect (since 2014). Lecturer (since 2014) and associate professor (since 2019) on the preservation of the cultural-historical heritage. Author of more than 40 scientific and popular scientific publications. Since 2018 Member of the National Architecture Council of the consultative body of the Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Latvia.

Laura Beatriz Lage research interests focus on landscapes management, cultural heritage (tangible and intangible), architecture, and urban planning and environment. She is a post-doc student in UFMG and an ICOMOS member in the National Committee of Cultural Landscape in Brazil. She has been carrying research on “Landscape as a way to understand the world”, using Pampulha Settlement (Cultural Landscape designated by UNESCO) as study case. Currently is an executive secretary of the Cultural Landscape Committee in ICOMOS Brazil and contributed to a creation of a study group with a partnership between FMC and UFMG about HUL (Historic Urban Landscape).

Paulette Wallace has a Bachelor of Arts (Hons) History from the University of Otago and a Master of Museum and Heritage Studies from Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand. In 2015, she completed a Ph.D. at Deakin University in Melbourne, Australia. She has been Executive Officer for the Australian Convict Sites, a serial World Heritage Property with 11 sites located across Australia and more recently from 2018 as the Manager Heritage Assets responsible for 12 Heritage New Zealand Pouhere Taonga properties located across the central North Island of New Zealand. Paulette is a member of ICOMOS Australia, Australian representative on the ISCCL from 2015-2018, a member of Our Common Dignity Initiative.

Sanja Zadro, Ph.D., independent researcher based in Zagreb (Croatia), a member of ICOMOS, Bosnia, and Herzegovina. Participated in the research project Croatia and Central Europe: Art and Politics in the Late Modern Period (1780-1945) funded by Croatian Science Foundation. Research topic: Vitality of disaster and reinventions of the ruin: Historic preservation (of the built environment) in Bosnia and Herzegovina today. Research interests in the domains of the experimental preservation, political aspects of design practice, participatory urban design, socio-spatial relations, urban sustainability, creative placemaking (microstructural), and critical heritage studies.

Information for those arriving to Estonia:

Travel rules in COVID time: https://vm.ee/en/information-countries-and-self-isolation-requirements-passengers

Kalev Spa Hotel, reserved from 2.-5.09 https://www.kalevspa.ee/en/home/

Estonian Academy of Arts https://www.artun.ee/en/home/

Lahemaa National Park https://kaitsealad.ee/…/protected-are…/lahemaa-national-park

Old Town of Tallinn https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/822/

Tallinn Airport https://www.tallinn-airport.ee/en/transport/leaving-the-airport/

You are most welcome!

Ave Paulus, Riin Alatalu, Bente Mathisen

ICOMOS International Working Group “Our Common Dignity“

Training course

Additional information: estonia.icomos.org ave.paulus@artun.ee

Supporters: Nordic Council of Ministers, Estonian Academy of Arts, National Heritage Board of Estonia, Juminda Peninsula Society, Lahemaa NP Cooperation Council

Toomas Tuul. Tallinn

Koolitus Pärandikogukonnad ja õigused

ICOMOS Eesti ja Eesti Kunstiakadeemia ning ICOMOSi „Meie ühine väärikus – õiguste põhine lähenemine“ töögrupp korraldasid 2.-5. septembril 2020 Tallinnas ja veebis rahvusvahelise seminari “Pärandikogukonnad ja inimõigused“. Koolitus toimus koos IUCN ja ICCROMiga.

Koolituse viisid läbi Dr. Peter Bille Larsen Genfi Ülikoolist ja Dr. Stener Ekern Oslo Ülikoolist. ICCROMi esindasid Rohit Jigyasu ja Eugene Jo, IUCNi  Tim Badman. Sissevaate pärandi ja turismi vahekorda andis Claudio Milano Barcelona Autonoomsest Ülikoolist.  Koolitust modereerisid Bente Mathisen (Norra), Riin Alatalu, Ave Paulus ja Triin Talk.

Koolitus keskendus kogukonna põhisele  pärandi kaitsele ning inimõiguste põhimõtete rakendamisele. Õiguste põhine lähenemine keskendub otsusprotsessidele ning selle eesmärk on jälgida, et kedagi, eriti vähemusi ja haavatavaid ühiskonna gruppe, ei jäetaks otsuste tegemisel kõrvale. Koolituse eesmärk oli õppida, kuidas märgata otsustega mõjutatavaid  isikuid ja kogukondi ning kuidas kaasata neid otsustusprotsessi.

Neli päeva kestnud koolitusel osales ligi 50 osalejat ja vaatlejat 24 riigist  Euroopas, Aasias, Ameerikas, Austraalias ja Lähis-Idas. Koolitus koosnes nii teoreetilistest loengutest kui ka osalejate näidisjuhtumistest. Kogukonna õiguste põhjalikumaks käsitluseks olid näidisjuhtumid jagatud teemaplokkidesse – mitmekihilised mälumaastikud, turismist mõjutatud linnakeskkonnad ja majandustegevuse piirangud kaitsealadel. Koolituse põhjal on koostamisel artiklite kogumik.

Lisainfo: Riin.alatalu@artun.ee

ICOMOS Estonia and Estonian Academy of Arts hosted 2.-5.09.2020 in Tallinn and in the web the „Our Common Dignity “ working group training course „Heritage Communities and Human Rights “. Training course was held together with IUCN and ICCROM.

The training course was led by  Peter Bille Larsen, the University of Geneva, and  Stener Ekern, the University of Oslo. ICCROM was represented by Rohit Jigyasu and Eugene Jo, IUCN by Tim Badman. Special contribution on heritage and tourism was given by Claudio Milano from Autonomous University of Barcelona. Thematic modules were moderated by Bente Mathisen, Riin Alatalu,  Ave Paulus (ICOMOS “Our Common Dignity” working group), and Triin Talk (EKA). 

The training course focused on community-based heritage protection, the theory and application of human rights-based approaches in the heritage field. The rights-based approaches method follows the decision making processes and aims that nobody, specially marginalized and vulnerable groups in heritage actions, are left behind. The aim of the seminar was to train how to map who are the relevant individuals and communities and how should they be involved in the decision-making process. 

The four-days training brought together nearly 50 participants and observers from 24 countries in Europe, Asia, Americas, Australia and Middle-East. The course combined theoretical approaches from the lecturers and practical case-study presentations from participants. Each day the community rights were discussed under different angle – the multi-layered memory sites, the tourism affected urban heritage and restrictions on economic activities in protected landscapes.  The training has a follow up as a publication.

Additional information: riin.alatalu@icomos.org

Foto: https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/356/gallery/&index=13&maxrows=12

ICOMOS Türgi taunib Hagia Sophia muutmist mošeeks

HAGIA SOPHIA peab säilima kõigi oma kihistustega, religioonide ülese vendluse ja maailmarahu sümbolina. Foto: Tim Schnarr whc.unesco.org/en/documents/116919

10. juuli  2020

6. sajandist pärinevat Hagia Sophiat on Vahemeremaades sajandeid imetletud kui arhitektuuri meistriteost. Ta on vaimustanud külastajaid oma seinu ja põrandaid kaunistava marmori, hiiglasliku kupli ja säravate kuld- ja hõbemosaiikidega. Sultan Mehmet II Vallutaja muutis selle 15. sajandi keskpaigas mošeeks ja ottomanid pidasid hoonest väga lugu. Sultan Mehmet II moodustas selle kultuuripärandi kaitseks fondi, annetades mitmeid kinnisvarasid hoone ülalpidamiseks tagades nii hoone säilimise.

Pärast Türgi iseseisvussõda võttis Türgi Vabariik Anatoolia kultuuripärandi oma hoole alla, ekspertidele tehti ülesandeks mälestiste korrastamine nende identiteeti muutmata. Osa annetatud kinnisvarast (waqfid) muudeti muuseumideks, raamatukogudeks jms, millega tagati nende korrashoid. Näitena võib esile tuua seldžukkide medresed Konyas ja Sivases ning Mahmut Pasha Bazaari Ankaras.

1934. aasta Atatürki ja tema valitsuse liikmete otsus muuta Hagia Sophia muuseumiks peegeldab Türgi Vabariigi maailmavaadet ja selle ‘ühise kultuuripärandi’ käsitlust. Ilmalik Türgi valis muuseumifunktsiooni, et võimaldada teaduslikku uurimistööd ja kaitsta ning esitleda üleilmse väärtusega pärandit parimal moel. Kohandamisega muuseumiks toodi taas nähtavale hoone vahepeal kinnikaetud kunstiteosed. Muuseumifunktsioon võimaldas eksponeerida figuraalseid mosaiike ja kalligraafilisi tahvleid rahumeelselt ja sallivalt teineteise kõrval. Mihrab, kantsel, sultani galerii ja kõnepult, mis olid lisatud ottomanide ajal mošee vajadusteks, säilitati omal kohal ja Hagia Sophiast sai mälestis, mis tutvustas inimestele kõikjalt maailmast Türgi mitmekihilist ajalugu.

Tänu Türgi riigi tulevikku suunatud otsusele on paljude riikide teadlased uurinud mälestise arhitektuuri, kandekonstruktsioone, dekoratiivseid elemente jne ning teinud ettepanekuid selle restaureerimiseks. Hagia Sophia kaitseks saadi ekspertabi UNESCOlt kui Hagia Sophia kanti osana ajaloolisest Istanbulist maailmapärandi nimekirja 1985. aastal. Mitmed rahvusvahelised organisatsioonid, sh ICCROM, Maailmapärandi Fond, Princetoni Ülikool ja Saksa Teadusfond, korraldasid kupli ja piilarite tehnilisi uuringuid ja toetasid seeläbi konserveerimistöid.

Täna arutletakse Hagia Sophia muutmise üle mošeeks. Otsus teha Hagia Sophiast muuseum võimaldas esile tõsta selle mitmekihilist olemust läbi sajandite. Kasutuse muutmise läbi ei tohi väheneda võimalus mõista Hagia Sophiat kui 6. sajandist pärinevat kunsti ja arhitektuuri meistriteost. Muuseumi funktsiooni säilitamine tähendab ka UNESCO maailmapärandi nimekirja kantud silmapaistva ülemaailmse väärtuse – selle kihilise identiteedi – säilitamist. 

Riigi otsuste järjepidevuse põhimõtet silmas pidades on ainuõige jätkata Hagia Sophia kasutamist muuseumina. Muuseumi funktsioon oli määrav ka selle kandmisel Maailmapärandi nimekirja. UNESCO maailmapärandi konventsiooni allkirjastanud riigina on Türgi Vabariigil kohustus järgida konventsiooni reegleid. Austada tuleb ka Türgi riigi rajaja Atatürgi ja tema mõttekaaslaste otsuseid. Hagia Sophia on Istanbuli kõige külastatavam muuseum. Seal toimuvad pideval teaduslikud uuringuid ja konserveerimistööd. Hiljutine ingli näo leidmine kupli kirdeviklil annab tunnistust, et ehitisel on veel palju avastamata saladusi. Interjööris sajandeid säilinud mosaiigid on kõrge kunstilise väärtusega ja neid ei tohi kinni katta.

Kultuuripärandi kaitse mõte on tutvustada kultuuriobjektide autentset väärtust ja selle tunnuseid, kaitsta ja korrastada neid, austada nende ajaloolisi ja muidu olulisi väärtusi ning kindlustada, et erinevad ühiskonnagrupid mõistaks neid ja hindaks nende olulisust ning peaksid neid oma elu rikastavaks ja tähendusrikkaks osaks. Mälestiste olulised elemendid tuleb säilitada nende algses asukohas. Rahvusvahelisel tasandil väärtustatakse ajaloolise mälu ja üleilmse, kõikehõlmava ning rahvuste ülese kultuuri hoidmist. Hagia Sophia esitlemist koos kõigi tema kihistustega ei tohi takistada, et see maailma arhitektuuriajaloo imeline monument saaks edaspidigi kõiki meid inspireerida kui religioonideülese vendluse ja maailma rahu sümbol.

ICOMOS TÜRGI KOMITEE

Workshop on Rights-based approaches at the Interpret Europe conference

Interpret Europe – European Association for Heritage Interpretation organized an International Web Conference “Fostering Heritage Communities” in 8.-11.05.2020. A workshop on Rights-Based Approaches was provided by Ave Paulus and Riin Alatalu from ICOMOS Estonia. The presentation on the principles of the RBA and the importance of empowering the communities and respect for locals was complimented by several videos and received lively feedback from the experts working with the interpretation of the sites for the visitors.

Rahvusvaheline Muuseuminõukogu ICOM ja rahvusvaheline muinsuskaitse ekspertorganisatsioon ICOMOS avaldasid ühispöördumise kultuuripärandi kaitseks sõjalistes konfliktides.

Pöördumine on leitav siit: https://www.icomos.org/en/89-english-categories/home/70868-statement-on-the-threats-to-cultural-heritage-in-case-of-armed-conflicts

Relvastatud konfliktides ja poliitilistes rahutustes on alates aastatuhande vahetusest üha enam sattunud rünnaku alla kultuuripärandiobjektid. Neid on rüüstatud või tahtlikult hävitatud, et rahastada sõjategevust või mõjutada vastaste eneseväärikust ja usaldust. Muuseumid ja kultuuriväärtused on ohus paljudes maailma riikides.

Rahvusvaheline muuseumide nõukogu ICOM ja rahvusvaheline muinsuskaitse ekspertnõukogu ICOMOS on maailma pärandikogukonna esindajatena selle pärast väga mures, eriti värskete arengute valguses. ICOM ja ICOMOS tuletavad kõigile osapooltele meelde 1954. aasta Haagi konventsiooni kultuuriväärtuste kaitse kohta relvastatud konfliktide korral.

Konventsioonis lepivad osalisriigid kokku, et „iga rahva kultuuriväärtustele tekitatav kahju tähendab kahju kogu inimkonna kultuuripärandile, sest iga rahvas annab oma panuse maailmakultuuri.” Ameerika Ühendriigid ratifitseerisid Haagi konventsiooni 2009. aastal, Iraan 1959. aastal.

Mõlemad riigid on ka 1972. aasta maailmapärandi konventsiooni osalisriigid. Ameerika Ühendriigid ratfitseeris selle esimese riigina 1973. aastal ja tal on selle edendamisel olnud võtmeroll. Iraanis on 24 UNESCO maailmapärandi nimekirja paika, millel on suur kultuuriline ja looduspärandi tähtsus – mitte ainult iraanlastele, vaid kogu inimkonnale ja selle kollektiivsele mälule.

Lisaks võttis ÜRO Julgeolekunõukogu 2017. aastal ühehäälselt vastu resolutsiooni 2347, mis ütleb:”ebaseaduslikke rünnakuid usulistel, hariduslikel, kunstilistel, teaduslikel või heategevuslikel eesmärkidel püstitatud ehitiste või ajaloomälestiste vastu võib teatavatel asjaoludel ja vastavalt rahvusvahelistele seadustele käsitleda sõjakuriteona ja selliste rünnakute toimepanijad tuleb kohtu alla anda ”.

ICOM ja ICOMOS mõistavad ühiselt ja teravalt hukka kultuuripärandi tahtliku hävitamise. Kutsume kõiki osapooli üles austama rahvusvahelisi kokkuleppeid, mis reguleerivad relvastatud konflikte, ja kaitsma maailma kultuuripärandit kõikjal, sõltumata usulistest veendumustest või poliitilistest kavatsustest.





1946. aastal asutatud Rahvusvaheline Muuseumide Nõukogu ICOM (International Council of Museums) on suurim ülemaailmne kogu muuseumide valdkonda ühendav organisatsioon. ICOMi kuulub üle 20 000 muuseumi ja 44 700 liiget  138st riigist. ICOMil on 119 rahvuskomiteed  ja 32 rahvusvahelist komiteed. ICOM Eesti Rahvuskomitee (ICOM Eesti) asutati 1992. aastal.

www.icom.museums ; http://www.icomeesti.ee/et

1965. aastal loodud ICOMOS (International Council of Monuments and Sites) on rahvusvaheline muinsuskaitse eksperte ühendav organisatsioon, mis tegeleb pärandi kaitse ja uurimisega üle maailma. ICOMOSil on 10 546 liiget 151s riigis, 107 rahvuskomiteed ja 28 rahvusvahelist teaduskomiteed. ICOMOS Eesti komitee asutati 1993. aastal

www.icomos.org; http://estonia.icomos.org/

Oma pöördumise  mälestiste kaitseks on avaldanud ka Blue Shield, mis on kultuuripärandi kaitsele relvastatud konfliktides pühendunud rahvusvaheline organisatsioon. https://theblueshield.org/bsi-statement-on-potential-specific-targeting-of-cultural-sites-in-iran/

Lisainfo:

Riin Alatalu, ICOMOS Eesti esimees; riin.alatalu@icomos.org

Agnes Aljas, ICOM Eesti esimees; agnes.aljas@erm.ee

Eesti on hästi esindatud rahvusvahelise muinsuskaitse ekspertorganisatsiooni ICOMOS aastakoosolekul Marrakeshis

12.-18. oktoobril toimus Marrakeshis rahvusvahelise muinsuskaitse ekspertorganisatsiooni ICOMOSi aastakoosolek koos Maapiirkondade pärandile ja pärandmaastikele pühendatud teadussümpoosioniga. Eestist osalesid organisatsiooni rahvusvahelise juhatuse liige Riin Alatalu, kultuurmaastike teaduskomitee ekspert Ave Paulus ja Eesti esindaja rahvusvahelises noorte võrgustikus Anita Jõgiste.
Eesti on väga aktiivne üha suuremat tähelepanu pälvivas inimõiguste töörühmas. Ave Paulus ja Riin Alatalu olid ka tänavu töörühma seminari kaaskorraldajad. Aastakoosolekul tunnustati korduvalt maikuus Eestis toimunud rahvusvahelist seminari Pärand ja kogukonnad. Meie kogemus on vajalik alus sarnaste seminaride korraldamisel Ladina-Ameerikas ja Aasias järgmisel aastal.
ICOMOSi viimaste aastate üks olulisi prioriteete on noorte ekspertide kaasamine. Muinsuskaitseametis töötav Anita Jõgiste osales aastakoosolekul esimest korda. Tema sõnul pakkus koosolek väärtusliku võimaluse vaadata oma enda tööd distantsilt ja suuremas pildis.

Heritage and Rights training course and seminar May 1.-6. Tallinn and Lahemaa, Estonia


Heritage and Rights training course and seminar was organised by ICOMOS Estonia and ICOMOS Our Common Dignity/ Rights Based Approaches working group. The training focused on cooperation between state, community and individual in the governance and management of heritage to empower communities, the sustainable development goals.

The training brought together participants from Estonia, Latvia, Norway, Sweden, Ireland, Switzerland, Argentina and Russia. The training was a combination of academic and public lectures, meetings with local communities and experts, site visits and targeted workshops. The training enabled communication between different relevant authorities, experts, students and local communities.

Program in English

ICOMOS Eesti koostöös Keskkonnaameti, Muinsuskaitseameti, Eesti Kunstiakadeemia, Tartu Ülikooli ja Oslo Ülikooli Inimõiguste Keskusega korraldas 1.-6. mail 2019 rahvusvahelise seminari “Pärand ja kogukonna õigused” põhirõhuga kogukondade õigustel pärandi kaitsel ja kasutamisel. . Koolitajate ja esinejate seas on rahvusvahelise pärandikaitse ja õiguste tippeksperdid Eestist, Norrast, Šveitsist, Argentiinast.Koolitus hõlmas nii teoreetilist sissevaadet inimõiguste küsimustele, Läänemeremaade ja Iirimaa juhtumianalüüse ning objektipõhist arutelu.

Koolituse raames toimus kaks avalikku seminari, kohtumised kogukondadega ning ümarlaud Muinsuskaitseameti ja Keskkonnaameti esindajatega.

2. mail toimus Eesti Kunstiakadeemias avalik seminar „ Pärand ja Õigused“, mis keskendub kultuuripärandi ja  kogukonna õigustele teoreetilisest perspektiivist. 

5. mail toimus Palmse mõisas ja Lahemaa rahvuspargi külastuskeskuses avalik seminar „Pärandikogukondade kaasamine”, mis keskendub riigi, kogukonna ja üksikisikute vahelisele koostööle ja ülesannetele pärandi haldamisel.  Seminari eesmärgiks on kogukonnakeskse pärandikaitse põhimõtete praktikasse viimine. Seminar lõppeb ühise aruteluringiga.  

Seminari kavaga saab tutvuda siin https://www.kaitsealad.ee/est/koolitus-parand-ja-kogukonna-oigused.

Loe lisaks:

Riin Alatalu . Pärand ja inimõigused Sirp

Indrek Tart . Tallinna vanalinna elanikke peab hoidam kümne küünega. EPL

Vootele Hansen Pärand , lood ja inimese õigus. KesKus

Palmse mõis. Foto Toomas Tuul

Kalaranna fort

Europa Nostra nimetas 2016. aastal Kalaranna fordi ehk Patarei üheks seitsmest Euroopa kõige enam ohustatud mälestiseks. Europa Nostra hinnangu leiab siit.
ICOMOS Eesti kogus ICOMOSi rahvusvaheliste kolleegide abiga hulga näiteid, kuidas sarnaseid mälestisi mujal maailmas hoitakse ja kasutatakse. Saatsime oma ettepankud avaliku kirjana nii Riigikogu kultuurikomisjonile, Kultuuriministeeriumile, Muinsuskaitseametile, Tallinna Linnavalitsusele. Pöördumine avaldati ka mitmes ajalehes.

Foto: https://redterrormuseum.com/en/museum/history-of-patarei-2/

Rakvere riigigümnaasium

Uute riigigümnaasiumide ehitamine on käivitanud mitmeid arutelusid olemasolevate väärtuslike hoonete väärika kasutamise üle selmet ehitada uusi ja jätta olemasolevad unarusse. Kompromiss on leitud Paides. Endiselt ei ole suudetud pärandit väärtustava lahenduseni jõuda Rakveres ja Kohtla-Järvel.

Alar Kotli projekteeritud Rakvere Gümnaasium

Historical Perspective of Heritage Legislation. Balance Between Laws and Values/ Muinsuskaitse seadused omas ajas. Õiguse ja väärtuse vahekord

Conference commemorating the 350th Anniversary of the 1666 Conservation Act by King Charles XI of Sweden and 50th Anniversary of Tallinn Old Town Conservation Area

2016. aastal möödus vastavalt 350 ja 50 aastat Rootsi kuninga Karl XI muinsuskaitse seadusest ja Tallinna muinsuskaitseala loomisest.Väärikaid tähtpäevi tähistati rahvusvahelise konverentsiga “Muinsuskaitse seadused omas ajas. Õiguse ja väärtuse vahekord” 12.-13. oktoobril 2016.

Conference publication

Conference commemorating important legislative cornerstones brought together experts on heritage, administration and legal issues from all over the World. The organisers of the conference were ICOMOS Estonia, ICLAFI and Nordic- Baltic ICOMOS’s in cooperation with Tallinn Urban Planning Department, Estonian Academy of Arts and National Heritage Board and with the help of Ministry of Culture and Nordic Council of Ministers.

The aim of legislation through all times is to regulate peoples’ interests and behaviour and thus it reflects the relevant problems of the times. The rules that highlight the common values also serve as the generators of these. The target of the conference is to discuss the correlation between legislation and common values.

Conservation Act by King Charles XI of Sweden in 1666 is not the earliest heritage protection act in Europe, but very influential as the Swedish Kingdom of those days included the present Nordic and Baltic countries (Sweden, Finland, Estonia and parts of Latvia, Germany and Russia) and is the ground of current legislation in Sweden and elsewhere. And it is important because of its essence – it did not cover only the property of the King and the Church, but also the Viking age heritage, folk art and tales, ruins of buildings that are out of use, sacred groves and springs etc. The Act regulated the excavations of old graves; it forbid the reuse of ancient monuments as building materials, and the relocation of monuments, etc. Most of the issues covered are still relevant today. For example one can see the ties between forbidding excavation of the graves except for scientific purposes with the contemporary problem of metal detectorists and the obligation to safeguard the valuables from the widespread illicit trade.
Tallinn Old Town Conservation Area was first of the kind in former Soviet Union setting regulations to the development processes and has influenced not only the development but also the common understanding of heritage values. The creation of conservation zone was essential to preserve a unique medieval hanseatic town till now-a-days and develop it as a valuable and respected historical environment.