6. sajandist pärinevat Hagia Sophiat on Vahemeremaades sajandeid imetletud kui arhitektuuri meistriteost. Ta on vaimustanud külastajaid oma seinu ja põrandaid kaunistava marmori, hiiglasliku kupli ja säravate kuld- ja hõbemosaiikidega. Sultan Mehmet II Vallutaja muutis selle 15. sajandi keskpaigas mošeeks ja ottomanid pidasid hoonest väga lugu. Sultan Mehmet II moodustas selle kultuuripärandi kaitseks fondi, annetades mitmeid kinnisvarasid hoone ülalpidamiseks tagades nii hoone säilimise.
Pärast Türgi iseseisvussõda võttis Türgi Vabariik Anatoolia kultuuripärandi oma hoole alla, ekspertidele tehti ülesandeks mälestiste korrastamine nende identiteeti muutmata. Osa annetatud kinnisvarast (waqfid) muudeti muuseumideks, raamatukogudeks jms, millega tagati nende korrashoid. Näitena võib esile tuua seldžukkide medresed Konyas ja Sivases ning Mahmut Pasha Bazaari Ankaras.
1934. aasta Atatürki ja tema valitsuse liikmete otsus muuta Hagia Sophia muuseumiks peegeldab Türgi Vabariigi maailmavaadet ja selle ‘ühise kultuuripärandi’ käsitlust. Ilmalik Türgi valis muuseumifunktsiooni, et võimaldada teaduslikku uurimistööd ja kaitsta ning esitleda üleilmse väärtusega pärandit parimal moel. Kohandamisega muuseumiks toodi taas nähtavale hoone vahepeal kinnikaetud kunstiteosed. Muuseumifunktsioon võimaldas eksponeerida figuraalseid mosaiike ja kalligraafilisi tahvleid rahumeelselt ja sallivalt teineteise kõrval. Mihrab, kantsel, sultani galerii ja kõnepult, mis olid lisatud ottomanide ajal mošee vajadusteks, säilitati omal kohal ja Hagia Sophiast sai mälestis, mis tutvustas inimestele kõikjalt maailmast Türgi mitmekihilist ajalugu.
Tänu Türgi riigi tulevikku suunatud otsusele on paljude riikide teadlased uurinud mälestise arhitektuuri, kandekonstruktsioone, dekoratiivseid elemente jne ning teinud ettepanekuid selle restaureerimiseks. Hagia Sophia kaitseks saadi ekspertabi UNESCOlt kui Hagia Sophia kanti osana ajaloolisest Istanbulist maailmapärandi nimekirja 1985. aastal. Mitmed rahvusvahelised organisatsioonid, sh ICCROM, Maailmapärandi Fond, Princetoni Ülikool ja Saksa Teadusfond, korraldasid kupli ja piilarite tehnilisi uuringuid ja toetasid seeläbi konserveerimistöid.
Täna arutletakse Hagia Sophia muutmise üle mošeeks. Otsus teha Hagia Sophiast muuseum võimaldas esile tõsta selle mitmekihilist olemust läbi sajandite. Kasutuse muutmise läbi ei tohi väheneda võimalus mõista Hagia Sophiat kui 6. sajandist pärinevat kunsti ja arhitektuuri meistriteost. Muuseumi funktsiooni säilitamine tähendab ka UNESCO maailmapärandi nimekirja kantud silmapaistva ülemaailmse väärtuse – selle kihilise identiteedi – säilitamist.
Riigi otsuste järjepidevuse põhimõtet silmas pidades on ainuõige jätkata Hagia Sophia kasutamist muuseumina. Muuseumi funktsioon oli määrav ka selle kandmisel Maailmapärandi nimekirja. UNESCO maailmapärandi konventsiooni allkirjastanud riigina on Türgi Vabariigil kohustus järgida konventsiooni reegleid. Austada tuleb ka Türgi riigi rajaja Atatürgi ja tema mõttekaaslaste otsuseid. Hagia Sophia on Istanbuli kõige külastatavam muuseum. Seal toimuvad pideval teaduslikud uuringuid ja konserveerimistööd. Hiljutine ingli näo leidmine kupli kirdeviklil annab tunnistust, et ehitisel on veel palju avastamata saladusi. Interjööris sajandeid säilinud mosaiigid on kõrge kunstilise väärtusega ja neid ei tohi kinni katta.
Kultuuripärandi kaitse mõte on tutvustada kultuuriobjektide autentset väärtust ja selle tunnuseid, kaitsta ja korrastada neid, austada nende ajaloolisi ja muidu olulisi väärtusi ning kindlustada, et erinevad ühiskonnagrupid mõistaks neid ja hindaks nende olulisust ning peaksid neid oma elu rikastavaks ja tähendusrikkaks osaks. Mälestiste olulised elemendid tuleb säilitada nende algses asukohas. Rahvusvahelisel tasandil väärtustatakse ajaloolise mälu ja üleilmse, kõikehõlmava ning rahvuste ülese kultuuri hoidmist. Hagia Sophia esitlemist koos kõigi tema kihistustega ei tohi takistada, et see maailma arhitektuuriajaloo imeline monument saaks edaspidigi kõiki meid inspireerida kui religioonideülese vendluse ja maailma rahu sümbol.
ICOMOS „Our Common Dignity“ Working Group is honored to invite heritage experts, community leaders, and graduate students from Europe and around the world to training course „Heritage Communities and Human Rights“ which will be held 2.-5.09.2020 in Estoniaand internet.
The training course „Heritage Communities and Human Rights“ focuses on community-based heritage protection and the theory and application of human rights-based approaches in the heritage field. The course combines theoretical approaches with learning from practice involving field visits in Estonia as well as an exchange among participants. The course lecturers will provide an introduction to international human rights law that specifically relates to culture, heritage, and communities. In addition to providing basic knowledge about human rights and the UN, UNESCO and IUCN systems and practices, this course will discuss focus cases of heritage management and rights in protected heritage areas in different countries.
The training course on rights-based approaches is led by Dr. Peter Bille Larsen, the University of Geneva, and Dr. Stener Ekern, Oslo University. Thematic modules will be introduced and moderated by Bente Mathisen, Riin Alatalu, and Ave Paulus (ICOMOS “Our Common Dignity” working group). ICCROM is represented by Rohit Jigyasu and Eugene Jo, IUCN by Tim Badman.
The global pandemic is forcing us to digitalize the course and we have to plan accordingly. For the sake of effective training, we will adjust format and agendas so that all events will be accessible regardless of the presence in Estonia and time zones of the participants. The course will be divided into 5-hour daily joint zoom sessions, starting at 12 noon Paris time. In addition, there will be individual homework in the form of case material, which we will share and read before and after sessions. The joint sessions will include lectures, individual or group presentations, and, most of all, group and plenary discussions. We expect you to participate actively, in-person in Estonia or with video and audio, so that we can benefit from our collective presence and creativity. Short morning fieldwork visits will be recorded in video and made available on the web during the sessions.
Training Course time frame: 2.09-5.09
EVERY DAY in ESTONIA and in ZOOM
NB!! Paris Time
9.00-12.00 fieldwork (video summary in the web)
12.00-14.00 Lectures, discussion
15.00-17/18.00 Case studies, discussion
Detailed Schedule of the Course:
Wednesday, 2.09 Human rights and heritage. Memory sites
Moderators of the day – Riin Alatalu, Stener Ekern
10-12 Welcome Brunch
12.00-14.00 Introductory Session
Estonian Academy of Arts A-301/
12-12.30 Welcome words by Bente Mathisen. Short introduction of the participants
12.30-14.00 Introductory Lecture. Human Rights, Culture and Community Formation, Heritage. An Introduction to Human Rights-based Thinking. – Stener Ekern (Norway)
15.00-18.00 Introduction and Case studies of ‘memory sites’ or ‘historical monuments’.Estonian Academy of Arts A-301/
15-16.30 Introductory Lecture. Human rights and heritage, lessons from rights-based approaches. Peter Bille Larsen.
16.45-17.00 Te Pōrere, New Zealand. – Paulette Wallace (Germany).
17.00-18.00 Discussion moderated by Stener Ekern
Thursday, 3.09 Urban heritage and tourism. The balance between tourism expectations and community rights
Moderators of the day – Triin Talk, Riin Alatalu
10-12 Field visit – walk with community representatives in Tallinn Old Town. Start at Kalev Spa
12.00-14.00 Urban Heritage and Tourism
12.00 Lecture by Rohit Jigyasu
12.30 Lecture by Claudio Milano
13.00 Case study: Overtourism in Tallinn Old Town. – Triin Talk (Estonia)
13.20 Case study: Social Interaction in Historic Quarter of Rashid. – Mohamed Amer (Egypt)
13.40 Case study: Mean(ing)s of heritage: processes of marginalization of urban zones and the aspects of (experimental) preservation. – Sanja Zadro (Bosnia-Herzegovina)
15.00-18.00 Urban Heritage and Tourism
Estonian Academy of Arts A-301/
15.00 Case study: Kuldiga Old Town in the primeval valley of the river Venta. – Jana Jakobsone (Latvia)
15.20 Case study: Pampulha-Belo Horizonte. – Laura Lage (Brazil)
15.40 Case study: Urban Conservation areas in Estonia. – Kaarel Truu (Estonia)
Friday, 4.09 Cultural landscapes, protected areas and heritage community rights
Moderators of the day – Ave Paulus, Peter Larsen
10-12 Field visit – learning from the communities of Lahemaa National Park: traditional fishing, Hara Harbour
12-14 Heritage Communities Rights and Cultural Landscapes
Cat Arthur Cinema Hall, Tapurla village, Lahemaa NP
12.00-12.20 Peter Larsen, Some further thoughts on RBA and customary rights in a protected area context
12.20-13.00 Tim Badman (UK). IUCN evaluations of World Heritage nominations, community and rights issues: recent developments and lessons learned
13.00-14.00 Ave Paulus, Artur Talvik and Peter Larsen. Traditional livelihoods, values, and connected rights: Lahemaa NP fisheries research and international perspective
15-18 International case-studies on the challenges of heritage communities, customary rights, and traditional cultural practices.
Cat Arthur Cinema Hall, Tapurla village, Lahemaa NP
15.00-15.20 Claudia Uribe Chinen (Peru). Participatory approaches to archaeological heritage management in the Qhapaq Ñan Andean Road System: Transformative processes or old conundrums in communities’ cultural heritage rights?
15.20 -15.40 Diana Cowie (Australia). An Initiative to Increase First Nations Cultural Heirtage in Statutory Heritage Listings.
15.40-16.00 Shubham Shrivastava (India). Darjeeling Himalayan Railway (DHR): Exploring the impact ofintroduction ofbuffer zone on existing relationship between the local community and DHR
16.00-16.20 Hala Asslan (Syria). Syrian War: Women Rights &Cultural heritage in rural landscape
Neel Kamal Chapagain (Nepal). World Heritage Nomination from Community Perspective: A Case of Lomanthang, Nepal
16.20-16.40 Saara Mildeberg (Estonia). Landscape-Base Approach to Rural Stakeholders based on the Case Study of Soomaa National Park
16.40-17.00 Ancient and Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians
17.00-18.00 Discussion moderated by Peter Larsen
Saturday, 5.09 Institutional Panel on Human Rights and Heritage Communities
Moderators of the day – Bente Mathisen, Peter Larsen, Stener Ekern
12-14 Rethinking rights issues in different heritage contexts – intangible aspects. Representatives of IUCN, ICCROM, ICOMOS
Estonian Academy of Arts A-301/
12.-12.40 Lecture on People-Centered Approaches for Heritage Conservation and Management: Challenges and Opportunities by Eugene Jo (ICCROM)
12.40-14.00 Rethinking rights issues in different heritage contexts – intangible aspects. Representatives of IUCN, ICCROM, ICOMOS.
In the dialogue:, Tim Badman, Rohit Jigyasu, Bente Mathisen, Peter Bille Larsen, Stener Ekern, Riin Alatalu, Ave Paulus et al
15-17 Synthesis and Conclusions
Participant Panel on rights issues in heritage: regional issues – local solutions?
Estonian Academy of Arts A-301/
5 participants from Africa, Asia, Latin America, Europe and the Middle East (tbc)
Conclusions, ways forward and next steps: Bente Mathisen, ICOMOS Working Group
Supporters: Nordic Council of Ministers, Estonian Academy of Arts, National Heritage Board of Estonia, Juminda Peninsula Society, Lahemaa NP Cooperation Council12-14 Lecture on People Centered Approaches for Heritage Conservation and Management: Challenges and Opportunities by Eugene Jo (ICCROM)
Stener Ekern is a professor in anthropology at the Norwegian Centre for Human Rights (NCHR) at the Faculty of Law at the University of Oslo. He has done fieldwork in Nicaragua (1984) and Guatemala (2000 and ongoing) with a thematic focus on indigenous peoples, human rights, and legal pluralism. Additionally, he has worked with human rights and world heritage and transitional justice. At the NCHR he is responsible for several master courses in human rights and has also elaborated a course in human rights and world heritage in cooperation with ICOMOS Norway. Before becoming a university researcher in 1997, he worked as a program officer in Norwegian development cooperation.
Riin Alatalu is an associate professor of heritage conservation and restoration in Estonian Academy of Arts. She has a PhD in heritage conservation and restoration (“Heritage in Transitional Society from Nation’s Conscience in the Estonian SSR into the Harasser of the private Owner in the Republic of Estonia, 2012). Alatalu has worked in National Heritage Board, Tallinn Culture and Heritage Department and Estonian Ministry of Culture on leading positions taking care of supervision and promotion of heritage and she has been in charge of important international programs. She is the member of the Board of ICOMOS International and president of ICOMOS Estonia, member of Rights-Based Approaches working group, CIVVIH and former vice-president of ICLAFI. She is the chairperson of Estonian Heritage Advisory Panel.
Ave Paulus has master’s degrees from the Estonian Academy of Arts (heritage conservation and restoration) and Tartu University (semiotics and theory of culture). Her doctoral thesis in Tartu University proposes a heritage protection model, based on heritage community values and rights, Tartu-Moscow Cultural Semiotics and Rights-Based Approaches. She is a member of the ICOMOS Estonia, ICOMOS International Scientific Committees on Cultural Landscapes and Legal and Administrative Issues, Rights-Based Approach and Climate Change working groups. She is a specialist for cultural heritage issues in the Environmental Board of Estonia, Council member of Virumaa Museums, spokesperson of the intangible heritage of the Folk Culture Centre, Board member of Lahemaa and Alutaguse National Park Cooperation Councils. She has coordinated cooperation between heritage communities, state and universities in several development projects concerning heritage management.
Rohit Jigyasu is a conservation architect and risk management professional from India, currently working at ICCROM as Project Manager on Urban Heritage, Climate Change and Disaster Risk Management. Rohit served as UNESCO Chair holder professor at the Institute for Disaster Mitigation of Urban Cultural Heritage at Ritsumeikan University, Kyoto, Japan, where he was instrumental in developing and teaching International Training Course on Disaster Risk Management of Cultural Heritage. He was the elected President of ICOMOS-India from 2014-2018 and president of ICOMOS International Scientific Committee on Risk Preparedness (ICORP) from 2010-2019. Rohit has been the Elected Member of the Executive Committee of ICOMOS since 2011 and is currently serving as its Vice President for the period 2017-2020. Before joining ICCROM, Rohit has been working with several national and international organizations such as UNESCO, UNISDR, Getty Conservation Institute and World Bank for consultancy, research and training on Disaster Risk Management of Cultural Heritage.
Bente Mathisen is a Norwegian chartered architect MNAL who works as a cultural heritage manager and advisor at Statsbygg, Norway’s Public Construction Department, Culture and Ministry affairs. She has been director and deputy director for the Heritage Management Office of the World Heritage (WH) City of Bergen Norway, Director for the Management Office of Cidade Velha Republic of Cape Verde, and partner at the Architect group CUBUS, Bergen Norway. She is a board member of Foundation Bryggen, World Heritage site. She coordinated for 10 years the Eastern African City-to-City network between the WH cities of Bergen Lamu, Zanzibar and Ilha. She has been a Board member of ICOMOS Norway and is currently the focal point of the Our Common Dignity Initiative- Rights Based Approaches working group.
Tim Badman is the Director of IUCN’s newly established Nature-Culture Initiative, formerly Director of IUCN’s World Heritage Programme. He has been senior IUCN spokesperson on World Heritage, chair of the IUCN World Heritage Panel and Head of IUCN’s delegation at World Heritage Committee meetings since 2007. As of April 2019, Tim leads IUCN’s work in developing closer links between the Nature and Culture sectors, including through the World Heritage Leadership Programme jointly run by ICCROM and IUCN with support from Norway. Tim joined IUCN having worked as team leader of the Dorset and East Devon Coast World Heritage Site, UK. This role culminated in inscription of the site on the World Heritage List in 2001, and the subsequent development of the World Heritage programme on-site. He has been involved in many World Heritage site evaluation and monitoring issues globally. Tim also speaks for IUCN on the special challenges of conserving geological sites, including those sites that protect the most exceptional fossil remains of life on Earth
Claudia Hatsumi Uribe Chinen is a Peruvian archaeologist and scholar in heritage studies. Her professional work in the past 9 years has involved teaching assistance in Archaeology, archaeological research projects, consultancy on cultural resource management and research assistance in heritage conservation capacity-building programs. Claudia’s research interest s are generally concerned and critically engaged with uses of archaeological heritage in postcolonial contexts and approaches to ethics, sustainability and human rights in cultural heritage.
Claudio Milano is a social and cultural anthropologist with a background in economics and over 10 years of academic and industry experience. He is an international consultant in tourism development and urban planning, adjunct professor at the Department of Social and Cultural Anthropology at the Autonomous University of Barcelona and the Director of the Master’s program in Sustainable Tourism Destinations and Regional Tourism Planning at the Ostelea School Tourism Management, attached to the University of Lleida (Barcelona, Spain). Claudio is the Director of IDITUR Tourism Research Dissemination and Innovation Centre at Ostelea School of Tourism Management. Claudio holds a Ph.D. in Social and Cultural Anthropology and a Master in Social and Cultural Anthropology (Cultural Differences and Transnational Processes) both awarded by the Autonomous University of Barcelona (Spain).
Eugene Jo holds an MA in Cultural Heritage Studies, a BA in Korean History and is currently completing her PhD in World Heritage Studies at Konkuk University in Seoul. She joined ICCROM in 2017 as the Programme Coordinator for the joint IUCN/ICCROM World Heritage Leadership Programme. The World Heritage Programme aims to improve conservation and management practices for culture and nature through the work of the World Heritage Convention, as an integral component of the contribution of World Heritage Sites to sustainable development. The programme takes up a people-centred approach to conservation of nature and culture, with a focus on rights based approaches and addressing the issue of governance.
Hala Asslan has a Ph.D. from Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes (EPHE), Sorbonne, France, with honer. A consultant for the International Council of Monuments and Historic Sites (ICOMOS), UNESCO, and many other international organizations since 2010. She has varied professional and academic experience in the restoration and rehabilitation of historic buildings and sites in Syria, including World Heritage List sites such as Aleppo, Palmyra, Salah-Din Castle, Old Damascus, and Jerusalem. Serves as Co-President of Heritage Committee of the Central Syrian Architects & Engineers Syndicate. She Consultant with the Aga Khan Trust and the General Directorate of Antiquities and Museums in Syria (DGAM) for the restoration and rehabilitation of “Souk al-Saqatiyya” in the Old City of Aleppo, 2018.
Jana Jakobsone, Dr. arch., Director of the Construction Department of Kuldiga Municipality Council, the architect of the municipality (since 2005), Director of the Building Authority (since 2017), Chairperson of the Old Town and Environment Committee (since 2011), director of several urban environment development concepts and research. ICOMOS Latvia president (since 2013), CIVVIH expert member (since 2019). Practicing architect at the SIA Arho Office (from 2001 to 2005), certified practicing architect (since 2014). Lecturer (since 2014) and associate professor (since 2019) on the preservation of the cultural-historical heritage. Author of more than 40 scientific and popular scientific publications. Since 2018 Member of the National Architecture Council of the consultative body of the Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Latvia.
Laura Beatriz Lage research interests focus on landscapes management, cultural heritage (tangible and intangible), architecture, and urban planning and environment. She is a post-doc student in UFMG and an ICOMOS member in the National Committee of Cultural Landscape in Brazil. She has been carrying research on “Landscape as a way to understand the world”, using Pampulha Settlement (Cultural Landscape designated by UNESCO) as study case. Currently is an executive secretary of the Cultural Landscape Committee in ICOMOS Brazil and contributed to a creation of a study group with a partnership between FMC and UFMG about HUL (Historic Urban Landscape).
Paulette Wallace has a Bachelor of Arts (Hons) History from the University of Otago and a Master of Museum and Heritage Studies from Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand. In 2015, she completed a Ph.D. at Deakin University in Melbourne, Australia. She has been Executive Officer for the Australian Convict Sites, a serial World Heritage Property with 11 sites located across Australia and more recently from 2018 as the Manager Heritage Assets responsible for 12 Heritage New Zealand Pouhere Taonga properties located across the central North Island of New Zealand. Paulette is a member of ICOMOS Australia, Australian representative on the ISCCL from 2015-2018, a member of Our Common Dignity Initiative.
Sanja Zadro, Ph.D., independent researcher based in Zagreb (Croatia), a member of ICOMOS, Bosnia, and Herzegovina. Participated in the research project Croatia and Central Europe: Art and Politics in the Late Modern Period (1780-1945) funded by Croatian Science Foundation. Research topic: Vitality of disaster and reinventions of the ruin: Historic preservation (of the built environment) in Bosnia and Herzegovina today. Research interests in the domains of the experimental preservation, political aspects of design practice, participatory urban design, socio-spatial relations, urban sustainability, creative placemaking (microstructural), and critical heritage studies.
Interpret Europe – European Association for Heritage Interpretation organized an International Web Conference “Fostering Heritage Communities” in 8.-11.05.2020. A workshop on Rights-Based Approaches was provided by Ave Paulus and Riin Alatalu from ICOMOS Estonia. The presentation on the principles of the RBA and the importance of empowering the communities and respect for locals was complimented by several videos and received lively feedback from the experts working with the interpretation of the sites for the visitors.
Relvastatud konfliktides ja
poliitilistes rahutustes on alates aastatuhande vahetusest üha enam sattunud
rünnaku alla kultuuripärandiobjektid. Neid on rüüstatud või tahtlikult
hävitatud, et rahastada sõjategevust või mõjutada vastaste eneseväärikust ja
usaldust. Muuseumid ja kultuuriväärtused on ohus paljudes maailma riikides.
nõukogu ICOM ja rahvusvaheline muinsuskaitse ekspertnõukogu ICOMOS on maailma pärandikogukonna
esindajatena selle pärast väga mures, eriti värskete arengute valguses. ICOM ja
ICOMOS tuletavad kõigile osapooltele meelde 1954. aasta Haagi konventsiooni
kultuuriväärtuste kaitse kohta relvastatud konfliktide korral.
Konventsioonis lepivad osalisriigid kokku, et „iga rahva kultuuriväärtustele tekitatav kahju tähendab kahju kogu inimkonna kultuuripärandile, sest iga rahvas annab oma panuse maailmakultuuri.” Ameerika Ühendriigid ratifitseerisid Haagi konventsiooni 2009. aastal, Iraan 1959. aastal.
Mõlemad riigid on ka 1972. aasta maailmapärandi konventsiooni osalisriigid. Ameerika Ühendriigid ratfitseeris selle esimese riigina 1973. aastal ja tal on selle edendamisel olnud võtmeroll. Iraanis on 24 UNESCO maailmapärandi nimekirja paika, millel on suur kultuuriline ja looduspärandi tähtsus – mitte ainult iraanlastele, vaid kogu inimkonnale ja selle kollektiivsele mälule.
Lisaks võttis ÜRO Julgeolekunõukogu 2017. aastal ühehäälselt vastu resolutsiooni 2347, mis ütleb:”ebaseaduslikke rünnakuid usulistel, hariduslikel, kunstilistel, teaduslikel või heategevuslikel eesmärkidel püstitatud ehitiste või ajaloomälestiste vastu võib teatavatel asjaoludel ja vastavalt rahvusvahelistele seadustele käsitleda sõjakuriteona ja selliste rünnakute toimepanijad tuleb kohtu alla anda ”.
ICOM ja ICOMOS mõistavad ühiselt ja teravalt hukka kultuuripärandi tahtliku hävitamise. Kutsume kõiki osapooli üles austama rahvusvahelisi kokkuleppeid, mis reguleerivad relvastatud konflikte, ja kaitsma maailma kultuuripärandit kõikjal, sõltumata usulistest veendumustest või poliitilistest kavatsustest.
1946. aastal asutatud Rahvusvaheline Muuseumide Nõukogu ICOM (International Council of Museums) on suurim ülemaailmne kogu muuseumide valdkonda ühendav organisatsioon. ICOMi kuulub üle 20 000 muuseumi ja 44 700 liiget 138st riigist. ICOMil on 119 rahvuskomiteed ja 32 rahvusvahelist komiteed. ICOM Eesti Rahvuskomitee (ICOM Eesti) asutati 1992. aastal.
1965. aastal loodud ICOMOS (International Council of Monuments and Sites) on rahvusvaheline muinsuskaitse eksperte ühendav organisatsioon, mis tegeleb pärandi kaitse ja uurimisega üle maailma. ICOMOSil on 10 546 liiget 151s riigis, 107 rahvuskomiteed ja 28 rahvusvahelist teaduskomiteed. ICOMOS Eesti komitee asutati 1993. aastal
pöördumise mälestiste kaitseks on
avaldanud ka Blue Shield, mis on
kultuuripärandi kaitsele relvastatud konfliktides pühendunud rahvusvaheline
Alatalu, ICOMOS Eesti esimees; email@example.com
Aljas, ICOM Eesti esimees; firstname.lastname@example.org
12.-18. oktoobril toimus Marrakeshis rahvusvahelise muinsuskaitse ekspertorganisatsiooni ICOMOSi aastakoosolek koos Maapiirkondade pärandile ja pärandmaastikele pühendatud teadussümpoosioniga. Eestist osalesid organisatsiooni rahvusvahelise juhatuse liige Riin Alatalu, kultuurmaastike teaduskomitee ekspert Ave Paulus ja Eesti esindaja rahvusvahelises noorte võrgustikus Anita Jõgiste. Eesti on väga aktiivne üha suuremat tähelepanu pälvivas inimõiguste töörühmas. Ave Paulus ja Riin Alatalu olid ka tänavu töörühma seminari kaaskorraldajad. Aastakoosolekul tunnustati korduvalt maikuus Eestis toimunud rahvusvahelist seminari Pärand ja kogukonnad. Meie kogemus on vajalik alus sarnaste seminaride korraldamisel Ladina-Ameerikas ja Aasias järgmisel aastal. ICOMOSi viimaste aastate üks olulisi prioriteete on noorte ekspertide kaasamine. Muinsuskaitseametis töötav Anita Jõgiste osales aastakoosolekul esimest korda. Tema sõnul pakkus koosolek väärtusliku võimaluse vaadata oma enda tööd distantsilt ja suuremas pildis.
The course and seminars “Heritage and Rights”, May 1-6 in Tallinn and Lahemaa National Park are organised by ICOMOS Estonia in cooperation with the Environmental Board and the National Heritage Board, the Estonian Academy of Arts and the University of Tartu, the Estonian Institute of Human Rights, Tallinn University, the international ICOMOS and the Norwegian Center for Human Rights at the University of Oslo. The training focuses on cooperation between state, community and individual in the governance and management of heritage landscapes to empower communities, and the sustainable development goals. The training is a combination of academic and public lectures, meetings with local communities and experts, site visits and targeted workshops. The training and seminars bring together community, legal and heritage experts from around the world – Estonia, Latvia, Norway, Sweden, Ireland, Switzerland, Argentina and Russia. The training enables the communication between different relevant authorities, experts, students and local communities. How to implement human rights-based approaches to cultural heritage protection to balance the rights and responsibilities of the state, owners and communities will be discussed.
Wednesday 1st of May Meetings with local communities of Tallinn 16 Welcome session. Presentation of programme Participants present themselves. LIVESTREAMED!!!
Thursday 2nd of May„OUR COMMON DIGNITY“ open seminar “Community Rights and Heritage”. Theoretical questions of Community-Based Heritage protection and Rights-based approaches. In Estonian Academy of Arts main building.
Moderator: Dr Riin Alatalu, ICOMOS, Estonian Academy of Arts
9.00 Welcome words Mart Kalm, Academician, Rector and Professor of Estonian Academy of Arts Lauri Mälksoo, Academician, Professor of International Law, University of Tartu
9.30 – 10.45 What are human rights? The International Human Rights System. Dr Stener Ekern, Oslo University, Norwegian Centre of Human Rights
11.00 – 12.00 Rights-based approaches in Heritage protection. Community as rightsholder. Dr Peter Bille Larsen. Geneva University, Switzerland
12.00 – 13.00 Cultural heritage – tensions between individual and collective rights. Dr Aleksei Kelli, Ave Paulus, Tartu University, Estonia
14.00-14.30 Landscape protection- Heritage protection? Dr Helen Sooväli Sepping, Tallinn University
14.30-15.15 Ethics, communication and culture – Justo Vos Programme. Dr Daniel Scarfo, Ministry of Justice and Human Rights, Argentina
15.15-16.00 Rights of indigenous peoples and communities. Oliver Loode, Uralic Centre for Indigenous People, Institute of Human Rights, Estonia
16.15-18.00 Round-table: Challenges and opportunities in linking Heritage and Rights Night walking tour in Tallinn
Friday 3rd of May Workshop-training in Tallinn Academy of Arts. Stener Ekern, Peter Bille Larsen et al
9.00-10.30 What is culture? Group formation and group rights
11.00-12.30 Human Rights-based planning (HRBA)
13.30- 16.00 Human Rights-based planning (HRBA)
19.00 Arrival to Viinistu. Dinner
Saturday 4th of May Workshop-training continues in Lahemaa National Park, Viinistu Art and Conference Centre. Stener Ekern, Peter Bille Larsen etc
10.00-13.00 Human Rights-based planning (HRBA)
14.00-18.00 Applying theory to the cases Evening programme Sunday 5th of May.
Public seminar: “Heritage and rights – empowerment of local communities” Lahemaa National Park, Palmse manor complex. Community-based heritage protection. Heritage communities, rights and values. 10.00 Opening words Riho Kuppart, Director General of the Environmental Board of Estonia Siim Raie, Director General of the Heritage Board of Estonia
10.20 – 10.45 Partnership between Heritage Board and Communities. Siim Raie, Heritage Board of Estonia.
10.45-11.15 Communities safeguarding the Heritage of Lahemaa NP. Ave Paulus, Marti Hääl. Lahemaa National Park Cooperation Council.
11.15-11.30 Coffee break
11.30-12.00 Community Rights and World Heritage. Dr Bénédicte Selfslagh, ICOMOS Belgium
12.00-12.30 Communities initiatives in Ireland. Dr Grainney Shaffrey, ICOMOS Ireland
12.30-13.00 Rights-Based approach in Heritage Protection – Some Remarks on the Course in Estonia. Dr Stener Ekern, Dr Peter Bille Larsen.
13.00-14.00 lunch 13.30-16.30 Round-table: Guidelines for Community-based Heritage Management. Participants Dr Riin Alatalu, Dr Aleksei Kelli, Dr Deirdre McDermott, Dr Bénédicte Selfslagh, Dr Stener Ekern, Dr Peter Bille Larsen, Siim Raie, Ave Paulus, Marti Hääl etc Summing up and closure
Monday 6th of May Meetings with Lahemaa heritage communities Description of training Course “Heritage and Rights”
During the course we analyse and explore the ways and approaches how to: Understand international human rights standards and what they mean for the heritage field How human rights have been addressed in international heritage policy and practice How heritage has been addressed in the human rights field Adapt a rights-based approach to the particular heritage area and field. Advantages and challenges Requirements Explore the range of tools and skills necessary such as to build solid relationships with communities and people in their work. To embrace the principle of free, prior and informed consent of communities of origin before adopting measures related to their specific cultural heritage Offer all possible assistance so that communities and rights holders are consulted and invited to participate actively in the whole process of identification, selection, classification, interpretation, preservation and safeguard, as well as the administration and development of cultural heritage. How human rights approach helps to prevent and avoid conflicts between the rights of different communities. Facilitate mutual exchange and learning around individual cases and issues The course lecturers will provide a general introduction to international human rights law, as well as international human rights law that specifically relates to culture, heritage and communities. The course programme reflects this goal by building on group work and interactive sessions. The course will focus on perhaps two of the most difficult aspects of human rights theory: how do we understand “culture”, and how can we deal with the fact that some rights are group-based or collective and others are individual? How to balance the conflicts between the rights of different communities. In addition to providing basic knowledge about human rights and the UN, UNESCO and IUCN systems and practices in the field of human rights, this course will discuss actual cases of heritage management and rights in protected heritage areas in different countries. All participants are requested to prepare a brief note discussing challenges and dilemmas in their own heritage work or exploring a case based on literature. It can be a description of a legal case or typical dilemma in heritage management, including a brief description of the context. This might be about how to balance a national law with local customs. It can be about specific issues and cases where you deal with social concerns and rights issues. This may relate to specific groups or a particular management aspect or process. What is the concern/ question/ problem? How has it been addressed historically and what is the current management approach? What are the specific challenges? The case will be used during the course as a test when doing a ‘human rights analysis’ and designing and applying a ‘rights-based approach to the dilemma. The outcome is the case analysed with the Rights-Based approach toolkit. The case study method allows the participants to apply newly acquired theoretical knowledge directly to their work and will help ICOMOS and the course organisers accumulate knowledge about how HRBA will affect heritage work and improve this as a tool.
Training programme lecturers and speakers:
Stener Ekern Stener Ekern is professor in anthropology at the Norwegian Centre for Human Rights (NCHR) at the Faculty of Law at the University of Oslo. He has done fieldwork in Nicaragua (1984) and Guatemala (2000 and ongoing) with a thematic focus on indigenous peoples, human rights and legal pluralism. Additionally, he has worked with human rights and world heritage and transitional justice. At the NCHR he is responsible for several master courses in human rights and has also elaborated a course in human rights and world heritage in cooperation with ICOMOS Norway. Before becoming a university researcher in 1997, he worked as a programme officer in Norwegian development cooperation.
Peter Bille Larsen Peter Bille Larsen is a Danish anthropologist who works on conservation and social justice at both local and global levels. He is currently associate researcher at The Environmental Governance and Territorial Development Institute (GEDT) of the University of Geneva, and also works as a free-lance consultant. He has collaborated with UNESCO, the Advisory Bodies to the World Heritage Convention as well as academic partners to strengthen analysis and policy discussions on human rights, development and heritage. Recent books include Post-frontier resource governance (Palgrave, 2015), The Anthropology of Conservation NGOs (Palgrave 2018), World Heritage and Human Rights (Routledge, 2018) and World Heritage and Sustainable Development (Routledge, 2018).
Aleksei Kelli Aleksei Kelli is Professor of Intellectual Property Law (University of Tartu, Estonia). He is Chair of Legal Committee of CLARIN ERIC (Common Language Resources and Technology Infrastructure). Dr Kelli acted as the Head of an Expert Group on the Codification of the Intellectual Property Law of Estonia. He has been a Member of Team of Specialists on Intellectual Property in the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe. He has taken part in several EU and Estonian R&D projects as a leading IP, innovation, and data protection expert. Dr. Kelli has published numerous works on intellectual property, innovation, personal data protection, knowledge transfer, and related issues.
Bente Mathisen Bente Mathisen is a Norwegian chartered architect MNAL who works as an advisor and manager for cultural heritage at Statsbygg. She has been director for the Heritage Management Office of the World Heritage (WH) City of Bergen Norway, Director for Cidade Velha Republic of Cape Verde, and partner at the Architect group CUBUS, Bergen Norway. She is a board member of Foundation Bryggen, World Heritage site. She coordinated for 10 years the Eastern African City-to-City network between the WH cities of Bergen Lamu, Zanzibar and Ilha. She was the project leader of a restoration and capacity building project for the WH cities of Bergen, Norway, and Ilha, Mozambique. She has been a Board member of ICOMOS Norway, is member of ICORP and currently the focal point of the Our Common Dignity Initiative.
Oliver Loode Oliver Loode is Managing Director of URALIC Centre for Indigenous Peoples NGO (Põlisrahvaste Arengu Keskus MTÜ) where he coordinates the programme of Finno-Ugric Capitals of Culture and SANA2019: Civil Society Network for Preservation and Revitalization of Indigenous Languages. Between 2014-2016 he served as Expert Member of the United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues (UNPFII), including as Vice-Chair and Rapporteur. He has also worked as Head of Cultural Programmes at Minority Rights Group International. Before entering the field of indigenous peoples’ and minority rights, Oliver was a tourism development and place marketing consultant.
Daniel Scarfo Daniel Scarfo is a Cultural and Educational Advisor at the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights in Argentina (Justo Vos Programme). He is a sociologist (University of Buenos Aires) and a Ph.D. in Spanish and Portuguese (Yale University). He taught at different universities in Argentina (University of Buenos Aires, UTDT, FLACSO, UB, UNC), Canada (University of British Columbia) and U.S.A. (Yale University) and conducted research at the University of Buenos Aires, FLACSO and CONICET (Argentina). He was also the Director of the Sarmiento Museum and the Director of Institutional Programmes at the MAT (Tigre Art Museum), in Argentina. Research topics: languages, societies and cultures; ethics, education and justice.
Riin Alatalu Riin Alatalu is an associate professor of heritage conservation and restoration in Estonian Academy of Arts and the head teacher of restoration in Hiiumaa Vocational School. She has a PhD in heritage conservation and restoration. Alatalu has worked in National Heritage Board, Tallinn Culture and Heritage Department and Estonian Ministry of Culture on leading positions taking care of supervision and promotion of heritage and she has been in charge of important international programs. She is the member of the Board of ICOMOS International and president of ICOMOS Estonia, member of Rights Based Approach working group, CIVVIH and Estonian Heritage Advisory Panel, former vice-president of ICLAFI.
Ave Paulus Ave Paulus is the specialist for cultural heritage issues in the Environmental Board of Estonia, Council member of Virumaa Museums, Spokesperson of the intangible heritage of the Folk Culture Centre, Board member of Lahemaa and Alutaguse National Park Cooperation Councils. She is a member of ICOMOS International Scientific Committee on Cultural Landscapes, Rights-Based Approach working group, Climate Change working group. She has master`s degrees from Estonian Academy of Arts (heritage conservation and restoration) and Tartu University (semiotics and theory of culture). Her doctoral studies are related to the topic of community-based heritage protection. She has coordinated cooperation between heritage communities, state and universities in more than 30 development projects concerning heritage management.
Gráinne Shaffrey Gráinne Shaffrey is a Principal of Shaffrey Architects and current President of ICOMOS Ireland. Her work is concerned with the integration of new and existing urban fabric and public spaces which facilitate social and physical diversity. Research and publication has formed an important element of practice. Recent projects include the 14 Henrietta Street Museum which tells a bigger storey of home, housing, class and the city from the 18th to the late 20th Century through the prism of physical traces within this important historic building and the rich oral histories gathered through a unique collaboration with former residents. With ICOMOS Ireland, Gráinne has been working on a project gathering case studies which embrace the spirit and principles enshrined in the ‘Faro’ Convention on the Value of Heritage to Society.
Environmental awareness: the organisers hold no-plastic and minimum trash policy (no advertising papers, bags, handouts; no plastic bottles or one-time dishes etc), there is a possibility to have only vegan meals, environmentally-friendly transport solutions are preferred.
Organisers of the Workshops and Conference:
Ave Paulus, ICOMOS International Working Group “Our Common Dignity”, Environmental Board of Estonia Riin Alatalu, Estonian Academy of Arts, ICOMOS International, ICOMOS Estonia
Bente Mathisen, ICOMOS International Working Group “Our Common Dignity”, ICOMOS Norway Stener Ekern The Norwegian Centre of Human Rights, University of Oslo
Europa Nostra nimetas 2016. aastal Kalaranna fordi ehk Patarei üheks seitsmest Euroopa kõige enam ohustatud mälestiseks. Europa Nostra hinnangu leiab siit. ICOMOS Eesti kogus ICOMOSi rahvusvaheliste kolleegide abiga hulga näiteid, kuidas sarnaseid mälestisi mujal maailmas hoitakse ja kasutatakse. Saatsime oma ettepankud avaliku kirjana nii Riigikogu kultuurikomisjonile, Kultuuriministeeriumile, Muinsuskaitseametile, Tallinna Linnavalitsusele. Pöördumine avaldati ka mitmes ajalehes.
Uute riigigümnaasiumide ehitamine on käivitanud mitmeid arutelusid olemasolevate väärtuslike hoonete väärika kasutamise üle selmet ehitada uusi ja jätta olemasolevad unarusse. Kompromiss on leitud Paides. Endiselt ei ole suudetud pärandit väärtustava lahenduseni jõuda Rakveres ja Kohtla-Järvel.
Conference commemorating the 350th Anniversary of the 1666 Conservation Act by King Charles XI of Sweden and 50th Anniversary of Tallinn Old Town Conservation Area
2016. aastal möödus vastavalt 350 ja 50 aastat Rootsi kuninga Karl XI muinsuskaitse seadusest ja Tallinna muinsuskaitseala loomisest.Väärikaid tähtpäevi tähistati rahvusvahelise konverentsiga “Muinsuskaitse seadused omas ajas. Õiguse ja väärtuse vahekord” 12.-13. oktoobril 2016.
Conference commemorating important legislative cornerstones brought together experts on heritage, administration and legal issues from all over the World. The organisers of the conference were ICOMOS Estonia, ICLAFI and Nordic- Baltic ICOMOS’s in cooperation with Tallinn Urban Planning Department, Estonian Academy of Arts and National Heritage Board and with the help of Ministry of Culture and Nordic Council of Ministers.
The aim of legislation through all times is to regulate peoples’ interests and behaviour and thus it reflects the relevant problems of the times. The rules that highlight the common values also serve as the generators of these. The target of the conference is to discuss the correlation between legislation and common values.
Conservation Act by King Charles XI of Sweden in 1666 is not the earliest heritage protection act in Europe, but very influential as the Swedish Kingdom of those days included the present Nordic and Baltic countries (Sweden, Finland, Estonia and parts of Latvia, Germany and Russia) and is the ground of current legislation in Sweden and elsewhere. And it is important because of its essence – it did not cover only the property of the King and the Church, but also the Viking age heritage, folk art and tales, ruins of buildings that are out of use, sacred groves and springs etc. The Act regulated the excavations of old graves; it forbid the reuse of ancient monuments as building materials, and the relocation of monuments, etc. Most of the issues covered are still relevant today. For example one can see the ties between forbidding excavation of the graves except for scientific purposes with the contemporary problem of metal detectorists and the obligation to safeguard the valuables from the widespread illicit trade. Tallinn Old Town Conservation Area was first of the kind in former Soviet Union setting regulations to the development processes and has influenced not only the development but also the common understanding of heritage values. The creation of conservation zone was essential to preserve a unique medieval hanseatic town till now-a-days and develop it as a valuable and respected historical environment.